老年人的功能和社会潜力，以便通过积极老龄化，可以对 COVID-19 等疾病进行自我护理行为，并提高生活质量。
A novel virus from the coronavirus family called CoV-2 SARS spread rapidly around the world and was considered a global health emergency. The COVID-19 epidemic has severely affected the health of all human beings, especially older people (Pinto & de Carvalho, 2020). Studies show that the human coronavirus is an aggravating factor in the symptoms of diseases, such as obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, heart failure, and underlying diseases in older people, which increases the need for acute emergency care and hospitalization. Therefore, paying attention to prevention and care behaviors such as self-care helps to prevent infection and promote the health of these people (Jannat Alipoor & Fotokian, 2020). Also, due to the lack of definitive treatment for COVID-19 and the unknown behavior of the virus, self-care behaviors are the best possible solution to control this disease (Mehraeen et al., 2021).
Self-care in older people is an active and practical process by which older people and their families help maintain health through health promotion and disease management measures (Matarese et al., 2018). Self-care behaviours in COVID-19 include (a) personal protective, (b) social distance, (c) disinfection of the environment, (d) psychological well-being and (e) healthy lifestyle (De Maria et al., 2020). Self-care behaviours affect COVID-19 disease and if done correctly, the rate of hospitalization can be reduced by up to 60% (Zareipour et al., 2020). Self-care behaviours help reduce the burden of health care providers, reduce treatment costs and improve the health of older people (Pourhabib et al., 2018). Older people’s self-care behaviours in COVID-19 are related to various factors such as previous experience of self-care in other diseases, family support and health care organizations, type of job, physical and personality characteristics of the elderly person, flexibility, positive emotions, vitality, hope and optimism (Kooij, 2020). Because new mutations of the disease appear in different mutations of the COVID-19 virus, so it is very important to pay attention to self-care behaviours. However, staying at home can cause the elderly to experience symptoms such as anxiety and depression, limit their social relationships and significantly affect their lifestyle (Pant & Subedi, 2020). From the perspective of health scientists, one of the ways to improve the health of older people in the aspects of health and their participation in maintaining their health is to pay attention to active ageing, which can play an important role in preventing their disease (León et al., 2020), it is also associated with COVID-19 self-care behaviours.
Active ageing was introduced in 2002 by the World Health Organization with an emphasis on the culture and social conditions of society. According to the WHO, active ageing is a process that provides maximum opportunities for the health, participation, safety, and lifelong learning of older people to improve their quality of life (Del Barrio et al., 2018). In this definition, health emphasizes maintaining a healthy lifestyle and reducing risk factors and includes physical, mental and social well-being. Participation refers to the optimization of opportunities related to the social environment, such as participation in social and charitable affairs and education. Security refers to activities designed to ensure the protection, dignity and attention to the physical, social and financial needs of older people (Bárrios, 2015; Del Barrio et al., 2018). From the perspective of older people, active ageing is a set of personal components, such as maintaining health, life satisfaction, establishing family and friendly relationships and adapting to changes related to ageing and self-care (Bárrios, 2015). Some factors determine active ageing. These factors include health promotion and disease prevention, self-care, culture and social conditions, behavioural (physical activity), psychological (cognitive impairment and depression), environmental (physical barriers and access to transportation) and economic factors (income, employment) and access to medicines and health services (León et al., 2020; Mohammadi et al., 2018). Ferreira et al. reported that there is a direct relationship between functional independence in activities, such as self-care (eating, bathing, dressing), defecation control, mobility, communication and social interaction with active ageing (Ferreira et al., 2012). Souza et al. (2021) found that educational programs and health-promoting activities contribute to the advancement of active ageing in the fields of social participation, interaction with health care providers, cognitive improvement, participation in physical activity and increasingly older people’s independence.
Ageing and physiological changes in the body, weak immune system, one or more chronic diseases and polypharmacy in older people make this group more at risk for COVID-19 and its complications. One of the main methods of prevention and control of COVID-19 disease in older people is self-care. Active ageing is one of the indicators of health promotion and disease prevention in older people, so health care organizations must pay attention to active ageing as one of the factors related to self-care behaviours, and design appropriate health programs to maintain the physical, mental, functional and social potentials of the older people so that, through active ageing, self-care behaviours for diseases such as COVID-19 can be performed, and the quality of life can be enhanced.
一种来自冠状病毒家族的新型病毒 CoV-2 SARS 在世界范围内迅速传播，被认为是全球卫生紧急事件。COVID-19 疫情严重影响了所有人的健康，尤其是老年人的健康（Pinto & de Carvalho， 2020 年）。研究表明，人类冠状病毒是老年人阻塞性肺病、哮喘、心力衰竭和基础疾病等疾病症状的加重因素，这增加了对急性急救和住院治疗的需求。因此，注意自我保健等预防和护理行为有助于预防感染并促进这些人的健康（Jannat Alipoor & Fotokian， 2020）。此外，由于缺乏针对 COVID-19 的明确治疗方法和病毒的未知行为，自我保健行为是控制这种疾病的最佳解决方案（Mehraeen 等人， 2021 年）。
老年人的自我保健是一个积极而实用的过程，老年人及其家人通过健康促进和疾病管理措施帮助维持健康（Matarese 等人， 2018 年）。COVID-19 中的自我保健行为包括 (a) 个人防护、(b) 社交距离、(c) 环境消毒、(d) 心理健康和 (e) 健康的生活方式（De Maria 等， 2020）。自我保健行为会影响 COVID-19 疾病，如果做得正确，住院率可降低多达 60%（Zareipour 等人， 2020 年）。自我保健行为有助于减轻医疗保健提供者的负担、降低治疗成本并改善老年人的健康（Pourhabib 等， 2018）。老年人在 COVID-19 中的自我保健行为与多种因素有关，例如以前在其他疾病中的自我保健经历、家庭支持和保健组织、工作类型、老年人的身体和性格特征、灵活性、积极性情绪、活力、希望和乐观（Kooij， 2020 年）。由于该疾病的新突变出现在COVID-19病毒的不同突变中，因此注意自我保健行为非常重要。然而，呆在家里会导致老年人出现焦虑和抑郁等症状，限制他们的社交关系并显着影响他们的生活方式（Pant & Subedi， 2020）。从健康科学家的角度来看，老年人在健康和参与维护健康方面改善健康的方法之一是关注积极老龄化，这可以在预防他们的疾病方面发挥重要作用（León et al., 2020 )，它还与 COVID-19 的自我护理行为有关。
积极老龄化由世界卫生组织于 2002 年提出，重点关注社会的文化和社会状况。根据世界卫生组织的说法，积极老龄化是一个为老年人的健康、参与、安全和终身学习提供最大机会以提高他们生活质量的过程（Del Barrio 等， 2018）。在这个定义中，健康强调保持健康的生活方式和减少风险因素，包括身体、心理和社会福祉。参与是指优化与社会环境相关的机会，例如参与社会和慈善事务和教育。安全是指旨在确保老年人的身体、社会和财务需求得到保护、尊严和关注的活动（Bárrios， 2015 年；Del Barrio 等人， 2018 年）。从老年人的角度来看，积极老龄化是一系列个人组成部分，例如保持健康、生活满意度、建立家庭和友好关系以及适应与老龄化和自我保健相关的变化（Bárrios， 2015）。一些因素决定了积极老龄化。这些因素包括健康促进和疾病预防、自我保健、文化和社会条件、行为（身体活动）、心理（认知障碍和抑郁）、环境（身体障碍和交通便利）和经济因素（收入、就业）和获得药品和卫生服务（León 等人， 2020 年；Mohammadi 等人， 2018 年）。费雷拉等人。据报道，活动中的功能独立性之间存在直接关系，例如自我保健（吃饭、洗澡、穿衣）、排便控制、移动性、交流和社会互动与积极老龄化（Ferreira et al., 2012）。苏萨等人。( 2021) 发现教育计划和健康促进活动有助于在社会参与、与医疗保健提供者的互动、认知改善、参与体育活动和老年人的独立性等领域促进积极老龄化。
身体的衰老和生理变化、免疫系统较弱、一种或多种慢性疾病以及老年人的多种药物治疗使这一群体更容易感染 COVID-19 及其并发症。老年人预防和控制 COVID-19 疾病的主要方法之一是自我保健。积极老龄化是老年人健康促进和疾病预防的指标之一，因此医疗机构必须将积极老龄化作为与自我保健行为相关的因素之一加以重视，并设计适当的健康方案，以维持身心健康。老年人的功能和社会潜力，以便通过积极老龄化，可以对 COVID-19 等疾病进行自我护理行为，并提高生活质量。
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