简单3招实现小宝贝安睡,妈妈不熬夜

2021
11/01

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达医晓护
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在生命早期的前六个月,婴儿会需要在夜间醒来喝奶,从而获得足够的食物来满足生长发育的需要。大多数婴儿发育到适合的阶段时,可以睡整晚并自己安静入睡。但在最初的几个月里,我们可以做以下3件事来帮助婴儿入睡和安静下来:

·强调夜晚和白天的区别。

·在宝宝睡意朦胧但还没睡着时放到床上。

·开始建立有规律的睡前仪式。

如果在孩子出生后六个月内做到这些,可以帮助你的宝宝在发育到适合的阶段时能自行入睡和安静下来。需要记住的是,宝宝出生后最初的几个月里,及时回应宝宝并保持灵活性是最重要的。比如,有时宝宝有时在喝奶时睡着了也没关系。如果宝宝有哭闹不安,轻轻摇动或哄抱宝宝入睡也可以。

另外,安全的睡眠习惯可以最大程度降低婴儿猝死的风险,包括让宝宝仰卧,确保宝宝在睡觉时头部没有任何遮盖,在宝宝1岁以前或至少6月龄以前和宝宝同睡一个卧室。

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强调夜晚和白天的区别

刚出生不久的新生儿并不知道白天和黑夜的区别,所以我们常常发现新生儿在夜间完全清醒,然后在白天昏昏欲睡。所以在小宝贝生后的头六个月里,我们可以通过一些小事情来帮助他开始习惯夜晚和白天的不同,从而明白晚上是好好睡觉的最佳时间:

·晚上要保持房间黑暗或光线昏暗,并且保持安静。

·夜间需要照顾宝宝时使用比较昏暗的灯光,尽量不要打开明亮的顶灯。

·晚上听到宝宝的哭声要迅速回应,尽可能快的给宝宝喂奶或安抚。

·夜间喂奶在卧室进行,这样可以让喂养简单快速地完成,还可以让宝宝意识到晚上和白天的喝奶是不一样的。

·在晚上和宝宝的亲子互动时,尽可能让宝宝有安静平和的睡前时间。反之,在白天尽量让宝宝多玩耍。

从宝宝3月龄以后,可以尝试安排宝宝在一个安静和昏暗的地方午睡。随着年龄的增长,婴儿醒着的时间会越来越多,所以他们在光线和噪音很大的地方,例如客厅等家庭公共活动空间,容易睡得不好。

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在宝宝睡意朦胧但还没睡着时放到床上

尝试在宝宝睡意朦胧但还没睡着时放到床上。这样做的目的在于让宝宝可以逐渐把睡觉和躺在床上联系起来。如果宝宝建立起了这样的睡眠关联,那么在他晚上醒来时,可能更容易自己重新入睡。这种情况称为自我安抚,就是指宝宝能够自己平静放松下来,然后在床上再次入睡。能做到自我安抚入睡的婴儿会有较长的时间段的睡眠,并且夜间睡眠总时长更多。

如果宝宝将入睡与你抱着他哄睡,拍着睡或喝奶关联在一起,那么当他们在夜间醒来,宝宝可能需要你抱着哄,拍,或喂奶后再次入睡。当然,如果这样做对妈妈和宝宝都合适的话,晚上抱着哄睡或喂奶宝宝哄睡也是完全可以的。

下面列出的3个小妙招可以帮助你实现把在宝宝睡意朦胧时能放到床上的:

·给宝宝一点时间让他安静下来。避免在宝宝一开始哼唧时就立即抱起他们。当你尝试第一次把婴儿放下到婴儿床时,许多婴儿会表现出哼唧,这时候可以给他们一两分钟时间让他们安静下来而不是马上又抱起来。但如果宝宝开始哭,那表示他们需要你的安慰。

·随着宝宝月龄增大,如果宝宝在夜间醒来时有哼唧,可以给他一些时间让他自己平静下来——宝宝可能会在没有你帮助的情况下自己重新安静下来。不过如果你听到宝宝真的哭了,那你就需要帮助他重新进入安静的状态。

·尝试拍睡的技巧。你可以用这个方法拍拍你的宝宝直到他们可以平静下来,但要在宝宝睡着之前停止拍抚。拍睡的好处宝宝还是在他自己的床上入睡。

婴儿、儿童和成人都有自己的睡眠关联条件,是和我们在发困想睡觉时相伴随的常规和习惯。睡眠关联帮助我们入睡,以及在夜间醒来时能再次入睡。婴儿的睡眠关联条件一般有躺在自己的小床上、被抱哄,被拍抚和使用安抚奶嘴。

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开始建立睡前仪式

当合适的时候,可以开始建立宝宝的睡前仪式。这样可以帮助你每天按照相似的顺序给宝宝安排睡前的作息规律——例如,喂食、玩耍、睡觉。像这样的婴儿睡前仪式会帮助宝宝进入一个有规律的睡眠模式。因此,当您的宝宝在白天醒来时,规律的作息可能是:

·给小宝宝喂奶

·给小宝宝换尿布

·和小宝宝聊天、抱抱和玩耍

·当小宝宝出现疲劳困倦表现时,把宝宝放到小床上睡觉。

夜间的睡前作息,你可以选择直接让宝宝安静下来重新入睡,跳过玩耍这一步。

对于出生一个月内的新生宝宝来说,还是要在喂养和睡眠时间上保持一定的灵活度,但不管如何按照类似的顺序开始安排作息规律还是很有帮助的。

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Helping babies sleep and settle in the early months

In the first six months of life, babies need to wake at night to get enough food for growth and development. For most babies, sleeping ‘through the night’ and settling by themselves comes later, when they’re developmentally ready. But there are three things you can do in the early months to help with baby sleep and settling:

·Emphasise the difference between night and day.

·Put your baby to bed drowsy but awake.

·Start a sleep routine.

And if you do these things in the first six months, it can help your baby learn to sleep and settle independently later on, when baby is developmentally ready. Remember: responding to your baby and being flexible are the most important things in these early months. It’s OK if your baby falls asleep while feeding sometimes. It’s also fine to cuddle or rock your baby to sleep if they’re unsettled.

Safe sleeping practices can help you minimize the risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI). These practices include sleeping your baby on their back, making sure your baby’s head is uncovered during sleep, and sharing a room with your baby for the first year of life, or at least for the first six months.

Emphasising the difference between night and day

Your newborn doesn’t understand the difference between day and night. It’s quite common for newborns to be wide awake during the night and then sleepy during the day. In these first six months, here are some things you can do to help your baby get used to the idea that night is different from day, and that night is a good time to sleep:

·During the night, keep the room dark or dimly lit, and quiet.

·Use a dim light when you need to attend to your baby during the night. Try not to turn on a bright overhead light.

·At night, respond to your baby’s cries quickly, and settle or feed baby as soon as you can.

·Give night feeds in the bedroom. This will help to keep these feeds brief and make them different from daytime feeds.

·At night try to be soothing and quiet when you’re with your baby. Try to keep play for daytime.

From three months on, try to make a quiet, dark place for your baby to nap during the day. Babies become more awake and alert as they get older, so they don’t sleep as well in places that have a lot of light and noise, like the family room.

Putting babies to bed drowsy but awake

Try to put your baby to bed drowsy but awake. This gives your baby the chance to associate falling asleep with being in bed. If your baby has this sleep association, baby might be more likely to self-soothe when they wake in their bed in the night. Self-soothing is when your baby can calm down, relax and go to sleep again in their bed. Babies who can self-soothe sleep for longer periods and have longer total sleep times at night.

If your baby associates falling asleep with rocking or feeding, baby might want rocking or feeding if they wake in the night. Of course, it’s completely fine to rock or feed your baby to sleep in the night if this suits your baby and you.

Here are some ways you can help your baby settle in bed, drowsy but awake:

·Give your baby some time to settle. Avoid picking up your baby as soon as they grizzle. Many babies grizzle when you first put them into the cot, and giving them a minute or two to settle can help. But if your baby starts crying, they need comforting.

·As your baby gets older, give baby some time to settle if they grizzle when they wake during the night – baby might re-settle without your help. If you hear real crying, you need to help your baby re-settle.

·Try the patting settling technique. With this technique, you pat your baby until they calm down, but you stop patting just before sleep comes. A benefit of patting is that your baby is still going to sleep in the cot.

Babies, children and adults all have sleep associations. These are the routines and habits that we connect with feeling sleepy. Sleep associations help us go to sleep and go back to sleep when we wake in the night. Sleep associations for babies might include being in the cot, being rocked, being patted and using a dummy.

Starting a sleep routine

When it feels right for your baby and you, it can help to start doing things in a similar order each day – for example, feed, play, sleep. A baby sleep routine like this will help your baby settle into a regular sleep pattern. So when your baby wakes up during the day, a routine might be to:

·offer baby a feed

·change baby’s nappy

·take time for talk, cuddles and play

·put baby back down for sleep when baby shows tired signs.

At night, you might choose not to play and instead focus on settling your baby straight back to sleep.

With a newborn, it’s good to be flexible about feeding and sleep times – but it can still help to start doing things in a similar order.

作者:澳大利亚墨尔本大学医学院儿科博士

百汇医疗(中国)儿科医师

蒋本然

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关键词:
帮助,宝宝,婴儿,入睡

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