The Effect of Preoperative Anxiety and Pain Sensitivity on Preoperative Hemodynamics, Propofol Consumption, and Postoperative Recovery and Pain in Endoscopic Ultrasonography
Background: The present study investigates how preoperative anxiety and pain sensitivity affect the consumption of anesthetics, time elapsed until the desired sedation level is achieved, preoperative hemodynamics, postoperative recovery time, and postoperative pain.
Method:The present study includes 80 ASA 1–2 patients aged between 20 and 65 who were scheduled for endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) under sedation. Patients were instructed to fill out the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) before the procedure. For sedation, 0.03 mg kg-1 intravenous midazolam, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine, 1 l kg-1 fentanyl, and then a bolus dose of 1 mg kg-1 propofol were infused over a period of 60 s. The time elapsed until the bispectral index (BIS) value reached 75 was recorded. For anesthesia maintenance, 2 mg kg-1 h-1 propofol infusion was administered. In the case of sedation failure, an additional dose of 0.1 mg kg-1 propofol (IV) was administered to ensure sedation depth with a BIS level of 65–75, and the propofol infusion was halted once the BIS value dropped below 65.
Results:STAI-S and STAI-T scores were significantly positively correlated with PSQ minor pain and PSQ total scores. The time elapsed until reaching a BIS level of 75, propofol infusion dose used during sedation, and the need for additional doses of propofol, heart rate (HR), and duration of post-anesthesia care unit stay were significantly positively correlated with both preoperative anxiety and preoperative pain sensitivity. In terms of postoperative pain, the visual analog scale (VAS) at 1 h was more highly correlated with STAI-S and STAI-T than with PSQ. The VAS 2 h was only correlated with STAI-S and STAI-T.
Conclusion:The significant linear correlation between preoperative anxiety and pain sensitivity and anesthesia need can facilitate better preoperative management by predicting individual anesthetic consumption.