Healthcare workers are at high risk of developing mental health issues during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there is a need for a full picture of mental health problems with comprehensive analysis among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This review aimed to systematically identify the mental health problems among healthcare workers in various countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A systematic literature search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, MEDLINE Complete, and SocINDEX. The last date of our search was November 2, 2020. We included all cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies and used the Joanna Briggs Institute tool to assess their quality. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the pooled prevalence of mental health problems using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic and Egger's test was used to assess publication bias.
A total of 38 studies were identified that reported the mental health problems of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The distribution of healthcare workers analyzed in this review included 27.9% doctors, 43.7% nurses, and 7.0% allied health workers. The pooled prevalence of mental health problems for post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and distress was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22–75%), 40% (95% CI: 29–52%), 37% (95% CI: 29–45%), and 37% (95% CI: 25–50%), respectively.
This review yielded evidence that estimated the global prevalence of mental health problems among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common mental health disorder reported by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by anxiety, depression, and distress. Additional studies remain necessary to assess the appropriate management strategies for treating and preventing mental health disorders among healthcare workers during the pandemic.