Update on Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury
Zarbock A, Koyner JL, EAJ H, Kellum JA；Update on Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury；Anesth Analg；2018. 127(5): 1236-1245.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the perioperative period is a common complication and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A standard definition and staging system for AKI has been developed, incorporating a reduction of the urine output and/or an increase of serum creatinine. Novel biomarkers may detect kidney damage in the absence of a change in function and can also predict the development of AKI. Several specific considerations for AKI risk are important in surgical patients. The surgery, especially major and emergency procedures incritically ill patients, may cause AKI. In addition, certain comorbidities, such as chronic kidney disease and chronic heart failure, are important risk factors for AKI. Diuretics, contrast agents,and nephrotoxic drugs are commonly used in the perioperative period and may result in a significant amount of in-hospital AKI. Before and during surgery, anesthetists are supposed to optimize the patient, including preventing and treating a hypovolemia and correcting an anemia. Intraoperative episodes of hypotension have to be avoided because even short periods of hypotension are associated with an increased risk of AKI. During the intraoperative period, urine output might be reduced in the absence of kidney injury or the presence of kidney injury with or without fluid responsiveness. Therefore, fluids should be used carefully to avoid hypovolemia and hypervolemia. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines suggest implementing preventive strategies in high-risk patients, which include optimization of hemodynamics, restoration of the circulating volume, institution of functional hemodynamic monitoring, and avoidance of nephrotoxic agents and hyperglycemia. Two recently published studies found that implementing this bundle in high-risk patients reduced the occurrence of AKI in the perioperative period. In addition, the application of remote ischemic preconditioning has been studied to potentially reduce the incidence of perioperative AKI. This review discusses the epidemiology and pathophysiology of surgery-associated AKI, highlights the importance of intraoperative oliguria, and emphasizes potential preventive strategies.
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